A Statement of Fact
[5:82] You will find that the worst enemies of the believers are the Jews and the idol worshipers. And you will find that the closest people in friendship to the believers are those who say, “We are Christian.” This is because they have priests and monks among them, and they are not arrogant.
[5:83] When they hear what was revealed to the messenger, you see their eyes flooding with tears as they recognize the truth therein, and they say, “Our Lord, we have believed, so count us among the witnesses.
[5:84] “Why should we not believe in GOD, and in the truth that has come to us, and hope that our Lord may admit us with the righteous people?”
[5:85] GOD has rewarded them for saying this; He will admit them into gardens with flowing streams. They abide therein forever. Such is the reward for the righteous.
[5:86] As for those who disbelieve and reject our revelations, they are the dwellers of Hell.
Why monks & priests makes them best friends? Who are not arrogant?
Even though they have priests preaching among them they are not arrogant. They are not arrogant goes back to the Christians not the priests & monks. The Jews & the idol worshipers are arrogant whereas the Christians are not. Shows the importance of humility and not being arrogant in our religion. They are usually peaceful people, shows in the daily life and God blessed them with humbleness & kindness.
Is this referring to all time Christians or the time of Jesus?
All time, anyone who calls themselves Christians.
Is this related to 5:14?
[5:14] Also from those who said, “We are Christian,” we took their covenant. But they disregarded some of the commandments given to them. Consequently, we condemned them to animosity and hatred among themselves, until the Day of Resurrection. GOD will then inform them of everything they had done.